Thymosin Beta-4 (TB-500) is a peptide known for its ability to promote regeneration in the body. Studies in animals have demonstrated that the use of Thymosin Beta-4 can help to heal wounds in dermal, corneal, and cardiac cells, improve cell survival, promote blood vessel formation, and increase the maturation of stem cells. Thymosin Beta-4 has also been found to decrease levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
Research conducted on rats and mice demonstrated the efficacy of topical Thymosin Beta-4 in treating alkali and heptanol-related injuries to the eyes and skin. By administering 5 micrograms/5 microliters of Thymosin Beta-4 liquid eye drops twice per day, the corneal epithelium moved rapidly over the surface of the cornea to repair alkali injury. Thymosin Beta-4 alleviates inflammation by decreasing the levels of matrix metalloproteinases, activating nF kappa b, and blocking TNF cytokine release. Thymosin Beta-4 also increases the synthesis of laminin-5, which promotes cell contact and migration in the corneal epithelium and decreases apoptosis while increasing the rate of angiogenesis.
In another study, Thymosin Beta-4 was used to treat dermal wounds in rats and mice. Animals were treated with either a PBS form or a hydrogel of Thymosin Beta-4 in doses varying from 5 to 50 micrograms/50 microliters/wound. The application of Thymosin Beta-4 led to an increase in the rate of collagen deposition, keratinocyte migration, and angiogenesis. Studies conducted on rats and mice with various forms of impaired healing such as diabetes or advanced age reported that the use of Thymosin Beta-4 accelerated the healing process in the test subjects.
Thymosin Beta-4 has been shown to have positive effects in various animals when treating cardiovascular disease, nerve damage, septic shock, and dermal injury. For intracardiac injection of Thymosin Beta-4, the typical dose was 400 ng, while retro infusion doses ranged around 15 mg. In the coronary ligation models in mice, Thymosin Beta-4 promoted repair throughout the cardiac muscle. Additionally, in the refusion injury model of sheep, Thymosin Beta-4 prevented damage to the vascular system.
Thymosin Beta-4 helps to lower inflammation in the body and reduce levels of proinflammatory cytokines. In a study conducted by Phlip and Kleinman, endotoxins were injected into rats to examine the anti-inflammatory properties of Thymosin Beta-4. After dosing with Thymosin Beta-4, the lethality of endotoxin-induced septic shock was greatly reduced, as well as the inflammatory mediators found in association with septic shock. Reduced levels of Thymosin Beta-4 were found in rats with non-induced septic shock as well as when injected with the endotoxin, indicating that Thymosin Beta-4 can play an important role in treating sepsis.
According to this study, the administration of Thymosin Beta-4 resulted in a significant reduction in the lethality of endotoxin-induced septic shock and the associated inflammatory mediators. Interestingly, the levels of Thymosin Beta-4 were found to decrease naturally when sepsis was induced in rats. Lower levels of Thymosin Beta-4 were also observed in rats with non-induced septic shock or those injected with endotoxin, suggesting that Thymosin Beta-4 may play a crucial role in sepsis treatment.
Similar to its protective role in the cardiovascular system, Thymosin Beta-4 has demonstrated a protective effect on the nervous system both in vivo and in vitro. In rats, Thymosin Beta-4 was found to combat the loss of hippocampal neurons induced by kainic acid treatment when administered twice daily for 5 days.
In another study, treatment with Thymosin Beta-4 was shown to improve functionality, increase the amount of mature oligodendrocytes, and reduce inflammation in mice with autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thymosin Beta-4 was also found to protect against glutamate-induced and ethanol toxicity in vitro.
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